You can download the files you need from Origin if you have a licensed copy. I would just uninstall your corrupted version of BF3 and reinstall it fresh. Back in the days of the first major update to BF3, I tried to repair the install from Origin and it never worked. Uninstall and re-install for best results.
But like I said, if you have a valid licensed copy, you can download it as necessary through Origin.
I know with battlefield 3 a way to force check and download missing files is to go into the game data folder, should be several gigs worth, cut these to a separate location so the folder is empty.
Do the above with origin closed, then open origin and battlefield will start to download all the data back let this go for a few seconds and then close origin. Delete a couple files from the large chunk you cut earlier and copy what you have left back into the original location, start up origin and it should download all required files.
This is what I had to do when battlefield 3 first came out and its repair install was broken.