Manufacturing tech is usually the chip size, 90nm, 75nm, 50nm, 32nm. Smaller chips usually use less heat and therefore are better. TDP is the thermal footprint, or the amount of heat a chip will produce. Obviously lower heat is better, but it can come at a cost of the number of cores, the speed of the chip, etc. A lower TDP is better.
Yes some intel and AMD chips come with a GPU built right into the CPU now. They are good for light gaming and basic PC usage. If you want to seriously game, you will still need a GPU. If you want to play some light games, facebook and flash games, etc, the built in GPU's are fine.
For the rest of the stuff and the build on what I said, just start googling.