Manufacturing tech is usually the chip size, 90nm, 75nm, 50nm, 32nm. Smaller chips usually use less heat and therefore are better. TDP is the thermal footprint, or the amount of heat a chip will produce. Obviously lower heat is better, but it can come at a cost of the number of cores, the speed of the chip, etc. A lower TDP is better.
Yes some intel and AMD chips come with a GPU built right into the CPU now. They are good for light gaming and basic PC usage. If you want to seriously game, you will still need a GPU. If you want to play some light games, facebook and flash games, etc, the built in GPU's are fine.
For the rest of the stuff and the build on what I said, just start googling.
A nanometer is one billionth of a meter. When a processor is made, it is made with millions or even billions of transistors which are nothing but switches that switch on and off, 1 is on and 0 is off, which is the binary code the computer uses for everything. If a chip is 22nm, I believe it means the transistors are 22 billionths of a meter apart from each other. The closer the transistor are the more efficient, and the more power it has generally. Ivy bridge and sandy bridge are just code names for the generation of chips intel has created. Front side bus was used as a measurement of the speed of the north bridge on the motherboard where the cpu accesses the memory with the memory controller. Front side bus has been replaced with hyper transport in modern chips.