Very simple, raid 0 is basically striped which means data is spread through X amount of drives for speed. Raid 1 is called mirror drive and that copies data onto another drive. Raid 5 is striped with something called parity check, where in the event that 1 drive fails in raid 5, you can still save it(keep in mind data is not duplicated).
And lastly raid 10 is a combination of raid 0 and 1. There are also raid 50 and raid 60 but it's simply raid 5 in a different configuration. That's in a nutshell, good luck~ ^^