Linux uses very little space, at least the base system. I can install Ubuntu minimal version and it will only use up 3GB of disk space. That is tiny compared to the 20GB of space Windows use. Ubuntu programs are also rather small. So you really don't need a bunch of space. I would say 50GB is plenty. You can always increase it later on. I have an Ubuntu VM that's only 20GB large and I've used up 6.9GB of it. So it really depends what you will use Ubuntu for. 50GB should be plenty IMO.
For swap, it's up to you. Swap is just extra space dedicated for use when you have used up all your RAM. Swap is space on the hard drive so it is very slow compared to data in RAM. A safe number is to set it to the same amount as your RAM, or you can double it, triple it, etc. It doesn't really matter because what's 8GB, 16GB, or even 32GB in terms of space anyway? It's really little. 8GB swap should be plenty. Unless you're playing a flash game that takes up all your RAM, I don't think you'll run any Linux software (outside of VMs) that will hog up 8GB of RAM.
It does not matter whether you choose primary or logical. Linux can boot from either option, unlike Windows.
For filesystem type, select ext4. Keep in mind that Windows cannot read ext4 filesystems natively. If you want to read an ext4 partition on Windows, try using a software called Paragon. Linux can mount and read your Windows partition without third party software. You just need to mount it.
I would not mess with beginning of space or end of space on an existing partition (your Windows partition). What you want to do first is reduce the size of your Windows partition by about 50GB (or however many you want to allocate to Ubuntu). Then once you have shrunk Windows's partition down, format the unallocated 50GB of space and create an ext4 partition. From there, select that partition (and use the whole partition) as your install path for Ubuntu.