The processors and boards will shut down when they get too hot to protect the components. I think the heat sink isnt seated properly. My guess is no damage was done, but you need to get in there and make sure the heat sink is on there properly.
I have an AsRock Z68 Pro MB with a core i7 2600 k OCd @ 4,2 Ghz. Idle temps 35 C, Gaming temps 55 C / core (max), intel burn test - 94 C (Tcase temp - 55C). So, basicaly i have a Tcase temp of 55C but the sensors are located on the cores, and the temp's, when i start intel burn test change VERY Very fast (from 40 C to 90 C / core in just 4 seconds). My CPu passes Intel Burn test @ Standard setting but @ xtreme setting the CPU shuts down cos it reaches 98 C / core. Also in Prime 95 the CPu passes the test aswell. The heatsink its a Titan Fenrir Evo 2 and it keeps a Tcase Temp @ max 55 C , so the cooler its mounted correctly.
So I took off the cooler and and cleaned off the thermal paste and applied a new layer.
When installed Windows and Speedfan I got a temperature of 31ºC at idle. When I transcoded a two hour video I got temps of ~60ºC on Core 0.
How is that with a stock cooler and a Corsair Graphite 600t White Edition with all the stock fans. I've just no frame of reference for this.
Those are very good temperatures for the stock fan, as long as the temperatures remain like that you have nothing to worry about.
My 2500k idles at 30ºC to 35ºC depending on the room temperatures (that is with an Noctua cooler and a 4.5GHz overclock) and never goes higher then 55ºC under load (unless im stress testing with prime then it hits 65ºC) but long story short .....60ºC is nothing to worry about and is perfectly safe.
You may think it is irrelevant for me to list my temperatures as im not using the stock fan and I have overclocked the CPU, but its just to show you that 60ºC is perfectly safe
I hope this has helped to put your mind at ease a little.