Could this be a driver problem? Consult the website of the manufacturer of your SSD.
I have reïnstalled the Intel Chipset drivers provided by my laptop's manufacturer. Everything works again like it should.
In device manager, I discovered the IDE/ATA ATAPI controller was a default Windows 10 driver. After installing the chipset drivers it changed to Intel (R) 8 series Chipset Family SATA AHCI Controller.
Still no clue why the driver changed on its own though, but I'm glad it's sorted now, thanks!