How to partition a hard drive to install a fresh OS without losing data

Thanks for your time reading this and sorry If I messed up somewhere this is my first post here.

I'm going to upgrade my motherboard and RAM but I do not have access to any external drives (also I only have 1 drive). Naturally I will have to re-install windows (unless by some miracle the new motherboard boots) but I want to keep my data. I was wondering If I could partition my HDD and simply install windows on that and then simply fetch the data from the other part of the drive and uninstall the OS still on that side.

I could buy a drive but I really prefer not to because I'm saving for a new GPU and CPU and it's already going to take me ages.

Some questions I had:
1. Obviously I want to know if this is possible.
2. Will I be able to send data across the partitioned drive sides.
3. Will I be able to remove the partition after.
4.Will I be able to remove the old OS after installing the new one.
5. If I have to buy another drive can I buy an internal one?

Also I did some research before posting but most of what I found was not specific enough to my situation so I decided to ask myself to make sure.
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  1. Best answer
    Your best option it to buy another drive.
    Messing about with the partitions is always a risk of blowing it.

    Sure, you can maybe shrink the existing C partition, and install the OS on the new partition.
    However...this will almost certainly create other issues.

    The install of the new OS will almost certainly just modify the existing boot manager, and show you 2 OS options at boot, even if you later wipe that old C partition out.
    You can edit it, but one more hassle to take care of.

    Seriously look into another drive. Maybe now is the time to step up to an SSD for the OS and applications.
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