Most new games require the cd or dvd game to be in the drive to play them.
As the copy protection is built into the game to scan and test the disk to see if it is original.
If the case then no.
You can Naughty exe files to play without the disk in, but its piracy.
Depends on whether or not the game needed the disk in the past to run the game. Some games don't require a disk and some do. Some of the newer games have made games run without needing the disk in the optical drive, while older games still require the disk.
If you have a legally bought game (with a legal key), then you should be able to contact the game's support team and ask whether or not they can send you a new CD/DVD provided you can supply them with the key (and hasn't been given away), they should be able to send you a new CD/DVD.
Of course there is another way you can get a CD, and that is if you pirate an image of the CD/DVD and mount / burn the image onto a CD/DVD and use that to play the game.