You definitely cannot add a PC running home basic or premium to a domain. You would need to upgrade to professional, enterprise or ultimate to be able to.
You an access resources on the domain even though you can't join to the domain. Just map the network drives manually and supply a domain account in the format "domainname\username".
There's no way to join a domain with Home editions of Windows... it's been that way since Windows XP. You can access it's shares, etc as hang said, but you'll never be able to actually join the domain.
All of the above. This has been obvious in the documentation since long before release/