Windows is being a dunce, there probably is a way to get this re-connected, but I'm betting it won't be a usb device.
By touchscreen do you actually mean the monitor or the touch pad you use as the mouse?
If you want to do the work yourself, download the service manual for your laptop, it will tell you how to take the keyboard/palm rest/lcd bezel off to reach the connectors. You can then reseat them and blow out any gunk. If it's the touch pad, check in the BIOS settings, it may have just gotten disabled. You can also try re-installing the drivers for it before taking things apart. If it'd dead after all that, should be easy to replace with a new one. If it's your display that has the issue, you are looking at a pretty pricy fix, touchscreen panels are fairly pricy compared to the full laptop cost. If the thing is out of warranty you may be better off buying a new laptop if the issue is with the display.