I just spent hours figuring a workaround to this issue. Completely insane...
Here is what I did:
If you have another version already installed you must uninstall it like this:
--Go to C:\Windows\Installer
--Add the "Authors" column and sort by it
--One of the .msi files with have a "VMware" author
--Double-click it and follow through with the uninstall steps
Then to install the new version you must extract the installer:
--Run cmd.exe as administrator with any method... (e.g. type cmd into the search box at the bottom of the start menu and when it shows up right-click on it and select: Run as administrator)
--Type in "cd the-directory-where-the-install-file-is" then hit enter (e.g. c:\users\bob\downloads\)
--Type "the-name-of-the-install-file.exe /e tempfolder"
--Give it a few minutes or so to finish..
--Go to that new folder (e.g. c:\users\bob\downloads\tempfolder\) and find the .msi file (for VMware Workstation it's named "vmware workstation.msi"), and run it
This worked for me. Good luck.