Sometimes a disk is corrupted in a manner that prevents it from booting, But allows the HDD to show up and be accessed. For a 2.5" laptop drive you could try putting it into a USB enclosure and plug it into a USB port on a desktop.
This is one of the reasons I always partition a HDD, operating system and programs on C: and all my data files on D: - Have a greater chance of recovery of my files.
As far a repairing the corrupted C drive so that you would not have to re-install windows - you have tried all that I could suggest.
Maybe someone else will chime in with a alternative.