Intel makes available the manuals for their IA32 architecture - which includes Conroe and all shortly forthcoming variations.
Note that some specific features - such as how virtualization is implemented - are included in "Addendums". Good keywords to search for are "archictecture", "virtualization" (if you are interested in virtualization), "EMT64" (if you are interested in some of the details of 64bit instructions use and implementation), "instruction" or "instructions" (if you are interested in how a processor can execute multiple instructions in a single clock cycle), etc.
In some cases, it can be very technical reading but, extremely informative. Read and understand the core architecture manuals and you'll have very little to envy from a CS grad.