Alright so my boot SSD in my desktop failed (or so it acts when I try to boot from it) and the only thing I have to test it on is an old Linux Mint set up. Now I know virtually nothing about Linux but I want to run the Linux equivalent of check disk on it to check for errors and try and repair the SSD. I have no CDs or anything with me for the weekend to try and do anything. The only thing I have is a HDD with Linux Mint, my Windows SSD, and my storage drives. How would I go about running this?
I wouldn't recommend trying to fix an NTFS file system from Linux. That, IMO, is a sure recipe for making a problem worse. You are going to have to fix this disk in a Windows system, using the proper Windows utilities and even then it may not be fixable.
The easiest solution would be to just reinstall Windows. Be patient and wait until you have more time and the proper tools available.
I'm with ijack on this one in that you're much better of running the MS tools on an NTFS drive. That being said you might want to do a full dump of the drive and then test the integrity of the drive using your Linux install. If it's an early SSD it could be a physical problem.
Taking a backup would not be a bad idea either which way.