The primary problem you would have is that Windows will just wipe out the Linux bootloader without even asking, so you will need some kind of means of getting the Linux bootloader back.
Most distributions should make this possible by running a kind of recovery mode from the installer. All you need to do is make sure GRUB, or whatever other bootloader may be used, is reinstalled and picks up on the /boot section of your Linux drive where the kernel is located, and also the Windows install.
Once you narrow things down to a specific distribution it might be worth posting your question on their particular forums to get a little less generic advice. Just ask about how one would go about restoring a Linux bootloader and configure it for a dual boot as if this were a brand new install of the distribution, but obviously all you want to do is install and configure the bootloader.