D600 is quite an old laptop (mine is almost 12 years old), so you might want to try not-so-fancy Linux distribution on it. Get a distro which is like four years old. If you want to go with current distros, try installing in safe / text mode, and then work your way up.
Have you tried running "modern-days" distro on ten-years old computer?
Why you think there won't be any support for it? And what you consider "support"?
Last time I have fired up my D600 (with Ubuntu circa 2008-2009 installed), it still pulled an hour of updates.
Yes I run ArchPup, a bleeding edge rolling distro, on an old 2004 compaq laptop. Older hardware typically is never purged from kernel tree. The only time this has ever really happened is recently with the removal of support for i386 architecture in kernel 3.8. These are processors from 20+ years ago!
Ubuntu 12.04+LTS releases receive 'support' for 5 years (previous versions have 3 years; 10.04 is near EOL). As far as support goes for older releases, major security patches *might* be backported for a certain period of years however certainly not version bumps, in short your software is simply outdated. This is due to design, as software is 'feature frozen' for releases.
This is why LTS releases exist, they provide a stable computing platform that still receives security updates, however eventually these will cease to receive updates as well.
In addition developers simply cannot support old software and neither will the community, no one has the time to provide support for years old software when there are updates and fixes in the new. Even in the forums here you find posts related to bugs in the kernel or features not available in LTS releases, and the most common solution is to simply update to the latest software.
what distro are you trying to install? sorry if I did not see it. I would re-download whatever distro you d/led and try the install again. are using a cd, dvd, usb stick for the install? I had a kernel issue once with a Debian install I did a while back, turned out the iso was corrupted.
It isn't likely, but you may have a failing hard drive. Often it presents as a little problem such as a file error. Then when you try to install something else it just won't work. Can you test the disc from your BIOS?