You may need a sata pci card to enable the sata hdd.
Why not install Windows on the 80gb drive.
I have no experience with these adaptors to know if they are detected as sata or ide. Can you return the the drive and exchange for an ide one?
If not you can still use the old 80gb to install, get a sata usb powered case for the new drive and use it for backup, video, photos and audio files.
Installing XP on a sata drive requires a sata driver to be installed when prompted during instalation.