NO, SATA and NTFS are not the same.
SATA is a hardware specification that details how certain devices (often hard drives and optical drive) connect to the motherboard.
NTFS is a file system used by Microsoft. FAT32 is also a file system. It does have a file size limit, as you have noted.
There is not a SATA external drive that I know of, but some external drives support eSATA - an interface that has the same speed as internals SATA, but can be on an enclosure.