Nothing is wrong with the HD. You can not swap Windows installations between computers. All the drivers are device specific. It should work fine on the laptop assuming the 40min repair didnt nuke the install altogether.
The laptop drive is likely a 5400RPM drive and slower than a 7200RPM desktop drive so you really do not want it as your C: drive anyway. Buy a new 3.5in 7200RPM desktop drive.
If it is SATA try the Samsung Spinpoint F3. The 500GB model is one of the best for the money. It is out of stock at newegg but you can look around a bit and find one for $55. The 1TB is about $80.