You can always use multiple disks as - separate multiple disks! Then when one goes you lose only its contents. However, you do have the inconvenience of specifying a drive letter at the start of a folder specification sequence.
Closest thing to what you want is, as canadian69 says, RAID5. Requires at least 3 matched HDD's, classic configuration is 5. Because of data redundancy, 5 HDD's gives you 4 HDD's of actual usable space. Lose one disk and you can replace it, then rebuild the entire dataset without loss but it takes time. Lose 2 disks almost simultaneously and you do lose everything! (Rare, but I saw it once - thank goodness the professional IT staff had a GOOD backup system used properly!) For that rare event you can consider RAID6. I do agree that RAID0 carries increased risk of losing it all, and for what I consider minimal performance benefit.