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32 bit OS 4gigs of ram

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July 25, 2009 2:22:10 PM

So is it really a waste to use more than 4 gigs of ram in 32 bit operating systems?????

More about : bit 4gigs ram

a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 5:26:16 PM

inspector71 said:
So is it really a waste to use more than 4 gigs of ram in 32 bit operating systems?????


Four GBs is the maximum address space available. To put more RAM than the OS can address is self explanitory.
July 25, 2009 6:56:07 PM

It depends on which 32bit OS it is
Related resources
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 7:06:26 PM

mikrev007 said:
It depends on which 32bit OS it is


A 32 bit OS is a 32 bit OS. Total address space is limited to 4 GB. OP needs a 64 bit OS to address more than 4 GB of RAM. This subject has been discussed over and over on the Forum. Please stop it!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! AHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH









































HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!!!AHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 7:21:13 PM

i was confused for a second too. by win7 32bit. in win7 32bit all your ram shows up under system. but not all of it is used (apparently.) it causes some confusion.
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 7:29:12 PM

Not to be confused, a 32 bit OS has 4 GB of address space and no mo. Other hardware needing some of that 4GB limitation on a 32 bit OS will take up some the available total space, such as video card memory. So that is why a 32 bit OS will not have 4 GB address space available when 4 GBs of RAM is installed, the system has allocated part of the 4 GB available to other resouces. Catch this! A 64 bit OS IS NEEDED TO ADDRESS 4 GB OF RAM OR MORE. Vista 64 HP will address up to 8 GB. Vista 64 Ultimate will address up to 128 GB. Vista/MS recently made changes to allow 32 bit versions to show when 4 GB of RAM is installed. Because this question is asked 4,000,000 times per second each day and has beem explained over and over and over and over...
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 7:39:29 PM

Four GB or more system RAM can be installed on a 32 bit OS, but the system has a total aggregate 4 GB address space available. So, the extra RAM will sit idle, unaddressed.
July 25, 2009 10:49:45 PM

No, badge, the x86 architecture is more complicated than that. Just because the OS is 32bit doesn't mean you are limited to 32bit physical address bus.

The 4GB limitation in XP/Vista/Win7 is artificial.
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:02:27 PM

No mikrev007, it is no more complicated than I explained it to be. Your 32 OS has a 4 GB memory address space. Nothing artificial is of the Forum member's concern.
July 25, 2009 11:09:26 PM

Try and google "PAE". PAE has been mentioned a billion times in these forums
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:09:49 PM

mikrev007 said:
No, badge, the x86 architecture is more complicated than that. Just because the OS is 32bit doesn't mean you are limited to 32bit physical address bus.

The 4GB limitation in XP/Vista/Win7 is artificial.


Readthis and maybe have someone read it to you and teach it to you. It will come in handy when you open your mouth in the future.

Various devices in a typical computer require memory-mapped access. This is known as memory-mapped I/O (MMIO). For the MMIO space to be available to 32-bit operating systems, the MMIO space must reside within the first 4 GB of address space.

For example, if you have a video card that has 256 MB of onboard memory, that memory must be mapped within the first 4 GB of address space. If 4 GB of system memory is already installed, part of that address space must be reserved by the graphics memory mapping. Graphics memory mapping overwrites a part of the system memory. These conditions reduce the total amount of system memory that is available to the operating system.

The reduction in available system memory depends on the devices that are installed in the computer. However, to avoid potential driver compatibility issues, the 32-bit versions of Windows Vista limit the total available memory to 3.12 GB. See the "More information" section for information about potential driver compatibility issues.

If a computer has many installed devices, the available memory may be reduced to 3 GB or less. However, the maximum memory available in 32-bit versions of Windows Vista is typically 3.12 GB.








a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:13:53 PM

I have 3.25GBs. I hear there are some versions of Linux that don't have this problem. Haven't done any digging on it, anyone have any links?
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:14:04 PM

I googled,
Quote:
The 4GB limitation in XP/Vista/Win7 is artificial.


Here is what I got.

a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:15:17 PM

4745454b said:
I have 3.25GBs. I hear there are some versions of Linux that don't have this problem. Haven't done any digging on it, anyone have any links?


The other .75 GBs and anything beyond are artificial in a 32 OS. :sarcastic: 
July 25, 2009 11:21:05 PM

badge said:
Readthis and maybe have someone read it to you and teach it to you. It will come in handy when you open your mouth in the future.


Are you mental? Did I not exclude xp/vista/win7?

The question was about 32bit OSes in general. And they have no problem addressing memory above 4G. Did you google "PAE"?
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:26:06 PM

mikrev007 said:
Are you mental? Did I not exclude xp/vista/win7?

The question was about 32bit OSes in general. And they have no problem addressing memory above 4G.


I'll post it again for you to read. You obviously have a mental disorder that prevents you from from reading with comprehension. Have you considered drugs for those symptoms of yours? Try googling attention deficit disorder.

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/929605/en-us

Various devices in a typical computer require memory-mapped access. This is known as memory-mapped I/O (MMIO). For the MMIO space to be available to 32-bit operating systems, the MMIO space must reside within the first 4 GB of address space.

For example, if you have a video card that has 256 MB of onboard memory, that memory must be mapped within the first 4 GB of address space. If 4 GB of system memory is already installed, part of that address space must be reserved by the graphics memory mapping. Graphics memory mapping overwrites a part of the system memory. These conditions reduce the total amount of system memory that is available to the operating system.

The reduction in available system memory depends on the devices that are installed in the computer. However, to avoid potential driver compatibility issues, the 32-bit versions of Windows Vista limit the total available memory to 3.12 GB. See the "More information" section for information about potential driver compatibility issues.

If a computer has many installed devices, the available memory may be reduced to 3 GB or less. However, the maximum memory available in 32-bit versions of Windows Vista is typically 3.12 GB.
July 25, 2009 11:29:05 PM

I repeat: Did I not exclude xp/vista/win7?

What do you not understand? If someone wants to use Linux or a server based version of Windows... that kb really doesn't apply.

Did you google "PAE"?
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:30:22 PM

Mikerev007, I'm busy loading up a new Vista 64 machine a relative purchased exclusively to address four gigs of non artificial RAM. So, don't wake yourself. This thread does not comcern you. Go back to sleep. By artificial methods if need be.
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:31:02 PM

Nighty night mikeyboy. Sweet dreams you little rascal.
a b } Memory
July 25, 2009 11:35:26 PM

Go get'em badge.
I am just reading and laughing along, you certainly have a lot more patience with some of these people than I do.
And yes, this topic has been asked about, discussed, argued, discussed some more, and beaten completely into the ground more times than an average person can count on these forums.
Now, I cannot wait for the inevitable "well, I got an update for Vista 32 and now it is using all 4 gig of my memory..........."
Linux, who the hell uses Linux, and what for? That I am still trying to figure out.
July 25, 2009 11:38:58 PM

jitpublisher, the thread did not originate in Vista. Stop talking about Vista, when that is not what I am debating.

(the end)
July 26, 2009 7:46:38 AM

Well i guess i should take 4 gigs out of the 8 gigs of memory i have running my xp and vista 32 bit OS and use the other 4 gigs on my new 32 OS build since thats the max memory i will get out of it. Right!!!!.... Unless anyone is gonna say anything different, but i think i heard enough 4 gigs max's out 32 bit os .
July 26, 2009 4:47:16 PM

32 bit os only will see 3.25 gb of the 4 gb of ram that you install, I tested this
or
32 bit os only will see 3.25 gb of the 6 gb of ram that you install, I tested this
or
32 bit os only will see 3.25 gb of the 8 gb of ram that you install, I tested this

pretty much of a waste to go beyond 4 gb of ram for an 32 bit os system.
or
if you want to benefit from more then 4gb of ram go with an 64 bit os which physically see the 4 gb or 6 gb or 8 gb of ram and utilize it as it is meant
oh ya did I mention you must have a cpu that is an x86 architect. lol
daaaa
July 27, 2009 12:49:50 PM

Stop it, stop it, stop it.

1: A 32-bit OS can only address up to 32-bits of space (4GB). Think of it this way: a bit can be either 0 or 1, and a 32-bit address is a combination of 32 stright 0's or 1's. That leaves 4,294,967,295 unique combinations (which happens to be exactly 4GB) that can be referenced by a single 32-bit string of 0's and 1's.

2: PAE implements the 36-bit mode on most newer Intel X86/X87 processors, which expands the supported memory space to 64GB. The downside is that the OS itself continues to use its own 32-bit address space and 32-bit instructions.

Think of it this way: In a 32-bit OS with PAE disabled, there is one address space that can hold 32-bits of data for the entire system and all connected devices. With PAE enabled, each process would get its own unique page table, in order to extend the address space to the supported 64GB. So even though up to 64GB is supported, each individual process can only access 4GB at one time, making PAE ineffective for singular processes that require large amounts of RAM. Hence, why X64-Windows makes much more sense, as it does not share this unique limitation of Window's implementation of PAE.

Worse, PAE at the OS level is unstable, at best. This is because all device drivers need to be written in such a way that the expanded address space and multiple page tables will not cause any instability. This, of course, is often not the case, and even one bad device driver can bring down the entire OS (hence why M$ focuses so much time ensuring device drivers are stable).

From Wikipedia:

Quote:
In computing, Physical Address Extension (PAE) is a feature of some x86 and x86-64 processors that enable the use of more than 4 gigabytes[1] of physical memory to be used in 32-bit systems, given appropriate operating system support. PAE is provided by Intel Pentium Pro and above CPUs (including all later Pentium-series processors except the 400 MHz bus versions of the Pentium M), as well as by some compatible processors such as the Athlon and later models from AMD.

The x86 processor hardware is augmented with additional address lines used to select the additional memory, so physical address size is increased from 32 bits to 36 bits. This increases maximum physical memory size from 4 GB to 64 GB. The 32-bit size of the virtual address is not changed, so regular application software continues to use instructions with 32-bit addresses and (in a flat memory model) is limited to 4 gigabytes of virtual address space. The operating system uses page tables to map this 4 GB address space into the 64 GB of RAM, and the map is usually different for each process. In this way, the extra memory is useful even though no single regular application can access it all simultaneously.

For application software which needs access to more than 4 GB of RAM, some special mechanism may be provided by the operating system in addition to the regular PAE support. On Microsoft Windows this mechanism is called Address Windowing Extensions, while on Unix-like systems a variety of techniques are used, such as using mmap() to map regions of a file into and out of the address space as needed.


In short: While Windows could theoretically implement PAE to expand the address space to 36-bits, it is simply a far better option to switch to the more stable solution of switching to a 64-bit flavor.
July 27, 2009 1:21:12 PM

1: A 32-bit OS can only address up to 32-bits of space (4GB). said:
1: A 32-bit OS can only address up to 32-bits of space (4GB).

The CPU supports several addressing modes where PAE in one of them. Thus your claim in false.

2: PAE implements the 36-bit mode on most newer Intel X86/X87 processors, which expands the supported memory space to 64GB. The downside is that the OS itself continues to use its own 32-bit address space and 32-bit instructions. said:
2: PAE implements the 36-bit mode on most newer Intel X86/X87 processors, which expands the supported memory space to 64GB. The downside is that the OS itself continues to use its own 32-bit address space and 32-bit instructions.

The "virtual address space" continues to be 4GB. The physical address space is extended. It can be (much) more than 64GB depending on the implementation.


Think of it this way: In a 32-bit OS with PAE disabled, there is one address space that can hold 32-bits of data for the entire system and all connected devices. With PAE enabled, each process would get its own unique page table, in order to extend the address space to the supported 64GB. So even though up to 64GB is supported, each individual process can only access 4GB at one time, making PAE ineffective for singular processes that require large amounts of RAM. Hence, why X64-Windows makes much more sense, as it does not share this unique limitation of Window's implementation of PAE. said:
Think of it this way: In a 32-bit OS with PAE disabled, there is one address space that can hold 32-bits of data for the entire system and all connected devices. With PAE enabled, each process would get its own unique page table, in order to extend the address space to the supported 64GB. So even though up to 64GB is supported, each individual process can only access 4GB at one time, making PAE ineffective for singular processes that require large amounts of RAM. Hence, why X64-Windows makes much more sense, as it does not share this unique limitation of Window's implementation of PAE.

Each process also gets its own page table without PAE.

Worse, PAE at the OS level is unstable, at best. This is because all device drivers need to be written in such a way that the expanded address space and multiple page tables will not cause any instability. This, of course, is often not the case, and even one bad device driver can bring down the entire OS (hence why M$ focuses so much time ensuring device drivers are stable). said:
Worse, PAE at the OS level is unstable, at best. This is because all device drivers need to be written in such a way that the expanded address space and multiple page tables will not cause any instability. This, of course, is often not the case, and even one bad device driver can bring down the entire OS (hence why M$ focuses so much time ensuring device drivers are stable).

You cannot say that PAE makes the OS unstable. What can make it unstable is device driver programmers that don't follow Microsoft's guidelines and just ignores a part of the physical address.

Just to finish it off: Windows runs in PAE mode by default (the memory manager just ignores anything above 4G). So claiming that the extended page table structure makes it unstable doesn't hold.
a b } Memory
July 27, 2009 2:23:04 PM


Gentlemen,

Mike likes to use this topic to amuse himself at people's expense. He interposes himself into desktop conversations with features available on the server side as the means to make you "wrong". The fuel he uses are blanket assertions made about 32 bit OS's in general. He is pointing out it is not like that on the server side, he is technically correct, and will continue to hammer the point until you get tired and give up.

Understand that you guys are now engaged in a war over verbal semantics, and you are both absolutely correct depending on the context.


*****


OP: If you must have a 32 bit OS with address space in excess of the 4GB currently allowed on the desktop, please contact your systems engineers to discuss the implications of using PAE for the purpose of adding adding the additional table. Understand that individual 32 bit processes are still limited to 4GB of contiguous space, that this feature requires your drivers to be Large_Address_Aware at a minimum, and that you will have to go the extra step to ensure application and driver compatibility for everything you currently use as well as for anything you may consider using in the future.

For a Desktop version of the OS - You may not use PAE for the purpose of expanding address space. This is intentionally disabled by Microsoft due to the potential support nightmares stemming from making this work in a desktop environment. If you need the additional address space on a desktop version of the OS, you will need to go 64 bit.


****


Everyone else: If you're bored at work and want to continue to argue... Let us know, and we'll make a run for popcorn. Alternatively, I'll get my nephew to jump on his Gnome Engineer, make some target dummies, spray paint "AMD" on one and "Intel" on the other.

Then we can watch some *REAL* stupidity... ;) 
July 27, 2009 2:41:35 PM

Question: "So is it really a waste to use more than 4 gigs of ram in 32 bit operating systems????? "

My answer: "It depends on which 32bit OS it is"


So Scotteq, the only stupidity in here is people that flames anyone from answering that.

Btw, I am not "hammering". But when people call me a **** should I then just agree and stfu? People that calls other people ignorant just because they have no clue makes me vomit a bit.
July 27, 2009 3:28:10 PM

Well i just took 4 of the 8gigs of memory out of my computer that has a 32 bit OS. And guess what....... it still performs, works the same, and even plays the games the same. So you know what my question has been answered. And thank you guys for explaining everything on that subject for me.
July 27, 2009 3:29:33 PM

Quote:
The CPU supports several addressing modes where PAE in one of them. Thus your claim in false.


32-bit Windows implementation of PAE is an entirly different thing from CPU support for PAE.

Quote:
The "virtual address space" continues to be 4GB. The physical address space is extended. It can be (much) more than 64GB depending on the implementation.


Wrong. PAE on the CPU only supports a 36-bit data stream, which = 64GB (2^36 = 68,719,476,736 bytes). The extension of the virtual address space on the OS side, in theory, can go beyond that, true. But the CPU can not access beyond the 36-bit limit.

In short: the OS can extend the memory space however large it wants it to be. But unless the CPU can access that location in memory, the amount of RAM that the OS can access is moot. A 36-bit binary string leads to exactly 68,719,476,736 possible locations in RAM that can be accessed, no more.

It should be noted, the 64-bit Windows 64GB limit IS arbitrary, and can be extended to support the full 64-bit stream (2^64 = 1.84467441 × 10^19 bits (alot of GB :D ))

Quote:

Each process also gets its own page table without PAE.


I didn't say otherwise; I mearly pointed out the reasoning why one process can't access more then 4GB at a time using PAE.

Quote:

You cannot say that PAE makes the OS unstable. What can make it unstable is device driver programmers that don't follow Microsoft's guidelines and just ignores a part of the physical address.


Supporting PAE is no easy task, due to the need to ensure the hardware has its own memory needs properly addressed by the system in all circumstances and configurations.

Quote:

Just to finish it off: Windows runs in PAE mode by default (the memory manager just ignores anything above 4G). So claiming that the extended page table structure makes it unstable doesn't hold.


Only PAE itself is defaulted to OFF in the BIOS, making the default OS setting moot.


A 32-bit OS can only address 32-bits of RAM, period. PAE is a seperate mode, just like X64, that allows for a larger memory space. Window's implementation simply trys to extend the existing 32-bit OS to support 36-bits of memory space. If M$ wanted, they could make a 36-bit version of Windows that doesn't have the drawbacks of PAE, but with X64, theres really no point to using such an outdated method to extend RAM.
July 27, 2009 3:41:28 PM

No, no, no. And I am getting too tired to explain how it actually works.
a b } Memory
July 27, 2009 4:24:57 PM

mikrev007 said:
Question: "So is it really a waste to use more than 4 gigs of ram in 32 bit operating systems????? "

My answer: "It depends on which 32bit OS it is"


So Scotteq, the only stupidity in here is people that flames anyone from answering that.

Btw, I am not "hammering". But when people call me a **** should I then just agree and stfu? People that calls other people ignorant just because they have no clue makes me vomit a bit.



Mike - I made no judgment, merely reported my experience with you in other threads. I did not flame you, nor did I call you anything. I summarized the situation in very clear/blunt/non-technical terms which even a casual user can understand. /end


Beats the hell out of creating (another) thread where the argument persists for 3 years, no?

July 27, 2009 5:01:05 PM

mikrev007 said:
No, no, no. And I am getting too tired to explain how it actually works.


Wrong again, but you're free to try again whenever you want.

PAE is nothing more then a CPU addressing mode that extends the memory space to 36-bits. Driver support leaves stability lacking, however, so this mode is typically not used.
August 1, 2009 8:44:23 PM

"PAE is nothing more then a CPU addressing mode that extends the memory space to 36-bits."

You say yourself that PAE extends the address space (PAE is actually implementation specific, so it can be much more than 36 bits - which it is in modern CPUs). So why on earth are you then saying otherwise in other posts?

Your statement: "1: A 32-bit OS can only address up to 32-bits of space (4GB)"

Sure, I could write a novell here about memory mangagement in Windows and how it works inside the CPU. But all I will get back is some snotty comments. So read a book about it instead. Intel.com as a lof of developer manuals you can begin with.
August 1, 2009 8:57:17 PM

Scotteq, I find it funny that you and other people actually defends teaching people how stuff doesn't work.

To compare this discussion to something else. I've seen statements like "Microsoft didn't support 128 GiB harddrives before SP1, because they have lousy programmers". Wouldn't you correct such a false statement either?

So when badge corrects my original statements with "A 32 bit OS is a 32 bit OS" - then I will of course defend it.
a b } Memory
August 8, 2009 5:03:16 PM

It depends entirely on the context of the subject, mikrev007.
You do not need to teach or argue with a truckdriver, while he is driving his truck down the freeway, about boating safety.
If we go back to the OP's question, anything you have had to say in this thread, even if you are 100% correct, is kind of irrelevent. The OP doesn't know a huge amount about how things work on the server side of the business, doesn't need to know, does not care what-so-ever, and at this point, in this thread, and for this conversation, there is no point in bringing it up except for the sake of arguing just to have something to argue about.

You sound kind of like my wife, you know what I mean?
"Did you take the trash out?"
No, not yet dear.
"Well when are you going to do it, I have asked you twice!"(in the past 2 1/2 minutes)
In a minute dear, I am right in the middle of something.....
"Just as I though! You never even clean your wedding ring do you?"
Huh? (What has my wedding ring got to do with this?)

Yeah, to me, that is what this whole thread has been like......:) 
August 8, 2009 5:32:56 PM

Omg, jitpublisher. Have you read the thread? I'll repeat how it started:

Q: So is it really a waste to use more than 4 gigs of ram in 32 bit operating systems?

A: It depends on which 32bit OS it is

I was then called an ignorant idiot because of my answer. Hallo?
a b } Memory
August 9, 2009 11:52:01 AM

Name calling is uncalled for, that is for sure.
However, when someone start shouting names, there is no need to defend yourself. They instantly look the fool anyway!
September 6, 2009 8:15:23 PM

mikrev007 - As a software engineer for the last 20 years let me explain this to ya.

When you write an application you have to understand what memory model you will be using. Is it going to be a 32 bit or 36, or 64 bit application because it changes how to have to handle the memory.

So PAE will only help if the application is written to make use of this. This costs lots of extra time and money due to the code and the testing of that code. Microsoft SQL server and a few other of it's severs applications (Exchange) are written to do this. I don't know of ANY non-server application that is written to use PAE addressing.

So PAE does not fix the 4 GB limit.

Now you know.

theTroll
September 6, 2009 8:22:13 PM

Woops, double post when I signed up.

theTroll
September 6, 2009 8:47:40 PM

But of course PAE will help if you are running multiple applications, since the OS will have much more RAM to map them to. Applications don't have to be written to take advantage of that.

But sometimes people don't understand x86 architecture as well as they thought.
September 6, 2009 9:19:29 PM

mikrev007 said:
But of course PAE will help if you are running multiple applications, since the OS will have much more RAM to map them to. Applications don't have to be written to take advantage of that.

But sometimes people don't understand x86 architecture as well as they thought.


Have you ever done any programming?

A pointer or a reference is a variable that contains the memory location of something in memory. In 32 bit system these are 32 bit numbers. So the maximum locations they can find is 4,294,967,295. There is no way to change that. How do you address a memory location when you can't create a reference or pointer to it?

theTroll
September 6, 2009 9:24:36 PM

Because there is a virtual and a physical address space. A 32bit virtual pointer can point anywhere in physical memory, also way above 4G.
September 6, 2009 9:32:46 PM

And how do you shove a number larger then 32 bits into a 32 bit location, without loosing information? Ummm, you don't.

Yes, there are tricks that you can do to use memory above the 4 GB limit, such as using offset and the like, but the application has to be designed to do that. As I said earlier I don't know of a game or standard application that does it. Only a few server applications.

So, installing more then 4 GB doesn't help the standard user.

theTroll
September 6, 2009 9:35:22 PM

Research how paging works and you will find out.
September 6, 2009 9:40:29 PM

Guess you just answered my question about if you have done any real programming, and that answer was a loud NO!!!

I am very aware of how paging works and it doesn't even relate to the conversation at hand.

You can not access memory that you can not point using a standard pointer unless the application has been specifically designed to do so. Most applications are not. So one again memory above the 4 GB limit on a 32 bit os does not help at all.

You might want to read this: http://www.dilbert.com/2009-09-04/

theTroll
September 6, 2009 9:41:50 PM

Fine. Believe what you want.
September 6, 2009 9:44:00 PM

Have you done any programming? Have you written device drivers? Major Applications? Games? Guessing not.

So why do you believe that you know more about memory management then someone that has?

theTroll
a b } Memory
September 6, 2009 10:18:42 PM

theTroll said:
A pointer or a reference is a variable that contains the memory location of something in memory. In 32 bit system these are 32 bit numbers. So the maximum locations they can find is 4,294,967,295. There is no way to change that. How do you address a memory location when you can't create a reference or pointer to it?
PAE is a hardware feature that's used by some 32-bit versions of Windows to access extended memory beyond 4GB. In conjunction with this, Windows provides a programming API known as "AWE", for "Address Windowing Extensions". This API lets an application request banks of memory to be switched in and out of it's address space. Only 2 or 3GB of program memory is available at any given time (the rest is mapped to the OS), but by switching banks in and out of the address space a total of more than 4GB can be accessed. More information in this Wikipedia article.

Programs must, of course, be specially written to use this API in order to access the additional memory. SQL Server is an example of a program that has this capability.

So yes, 32-bit programs CAN access more than 4GB of memory if they are written to use this API and if they run on a 32-bit version of Windows which supports PAE (which in practice means a server version).
September 6, 2009 10:37:38 PM

Ummm, that is what I have been saying all along. I didn't go into the specifics because if they can't understand the basics, why confuse the issue.

theTroll
!