Check that the drive is being detected in the BIOS (press Del key as the computer boots). If not check the cables.
If ithe drive is present in the BIOS then go to Windows Settings, Control Panel, System, Hardware, Device Manager and see if the drive is listed or yellow flagged as faulty.
I would always test a CD drive with an audio CD and Windows Media Player to see if, at least, that can be played.
If the virus is gone there should be no permanent damage to the computer, though is there a possibility that the BIOS is affected and it might be worth reflashing it ?