Let's say one of my disks has a corrupted master boot record (MBR). If I zero fill, format and partition that drive, does that procedure also recreate the MBR, or does modifying it require some kind of specific method?
Yes, your procedure would have created a new MBR. You could have just deleted all partitions on the drive and recreated the partitions and it would have done it. Of course, this destroys all data on the drive just like your procedure did.
The fixes I listed in my previous post do not destroy the data, only repair the MBR.