I don't believe it is a function of the card. I don't recall ever seeing passphrases supporting under XP and WZC (Windows Zero Configuration).
What you might try is using the adapter’s own wireless application instead of WZC (I assume that’s what you’re using). I prefer WZC myself, but you may have no choice. Or perhaps the Linksys application might even reveal the key for use w/ WZC.
Or else switch to using keys instead of passphrases.