Don't worry about RAID, as you don't have that setup.
SATA and IDE are two types of hard drive conenctions. Hard drives used to be IDE and SATA is the common conenction now, but older computers still have IDE. Since I don't know how old your computer is, I want to know which hard drive type is installed.
IDE uses a wide ribbon, gray colored type connection to the drive.
SATA is a skinny cable with a small connector. The SATA cable can be red, blue, black, most any color.
If your hard drive is IDE, jumpers on the hard drive have to be considered. That's why I want to know which type you have.
Putting in someone else's hard drive may not tell you anything, as it's formatted for another computer's hardware.
If possible, you should download and run some hard drive testing software. Usually, the company that makes the hard drive has some sort of diagnostic testing software you can run off a CD or USB drive to test the drive.
If you don't know what brand your hard drive is, look at it-there's a label with the brand and model somewhere on it.
As I said before, there is the possibility that your hard drive controller has gone out. which is why neither hard drive is detected in the BIOS.