It all depends! Back up your data, it never hurts. Besides putting the HD on another MB should not cause any damage.
It depends on what OS is on the HD and how old you current MB is.
If the OS can't figure out how to enable your new hardware the system will hang or blue screen.
I found it eaiser to buy a new Drive and make it the master, install you old as the slave and reload your OS. good luck.
I thought I had tried this in the past but got security issues when trying to access the old drive. I kept getting "access denied" since I was trying to access it as a 2nd drive when booting up with another OS.