USB can provide 5V to an attached device.
Sata data cables provides no power to attached devices. This is why a Sata device has a second cable to provide power. The power cable provides 12V, 5V, and 3.3V.
These are constant and do not change depending on the device attached.
Now, current draw (and therefore wattage) change depending on the device, but that can be read from the device spec sheet.
how much voltage will a SATA Optical Drive like this one requires ?