I'm no pro, but isn't it simply a matter of matching up if the motherboard supports your CPU socket... i.e. You look up the specs of the CPU you want and find out the socket for it, then you look up the specs for the motherboard and see if it supports that socket.
Main way to know is socket type. Every processor is manufactured to use a certain socket, and require a motherboard with that socket. The motherboards BIOS also needs to support th processor, which most motherboards get updates when a new set of processors are released for that socket, unless you have a prebuilt since they usually lack updates. Then some budget motherboards can't support high end processors, by this I mean they usually will support only 95W processors and top end processors are frequently 125W.