Welcome, Newcomer. In regards to question 1... If you cannot see any physical damage, nobody on the forum will be able to tell you any different. The only way to know if you have any other significant damage is to continue using and monitoring the mobo.
As for your concern in question 2, well that's just as difficult to determine. Motherboard problems, aside from bulging/leaking capcitors or scorch marks, are very difficult to find.
You should pick up a "Y" splitter for your case fans, and try to connect your heatsink fan to another port. If you cannot get the board to post, but feel that the no boot problem isn't related to the pop sound you heard, you could try working through the troubleshooting guide (the link in my signature) for common fault/failure info.