This has happened because you put the drive into an external enclosure.
Free and easy answer: Download Kubuntu and Linux Live USB Creator (Lili)
Create a Live Linux USB disk with persistence using Lili
put the bad drive into the laptop and boot from the USB stick (see manufactures website about BIOS settings)
You can now access the drive without the enclosure and burn the files to disk, move files to another disk, or move files to another networked computer