The adapter linked by Dr_JRE allows you to connect an IDE hard drive to a USB port. But the pinout and connector on a 5¼" floppy drive is entirely different from that of a 40-pin IDE connector, so it can't do the job.
Also shows optional hardware case, cable and power supply available to create an external 5¼" floppy drive. NOTE the system only READS the floppy - does not write - and it simply creates a disk image on your HDD as a file. Comes with software to use the reader - the floppy is not directly accessed within Windows Explorer - and to use the files from the floppy. HOWEVER, there's a real bonus - the software can handle disks from several older hardware and OS systems, not just DOS or Windows on IBM PC-type systems.