Harddisk IO error after a few minutes

Dear all!
I have encountered a really strange problem I cant figure out by googling, so I need to rely on your expertise.

Currently I am able to mount the formerly internal Harddisk as an USB drive with other computers using Mac, Windows or Linux Live CD. The partition table seems correct after first recognition of the drive by the system, and I can also access the mounted volume and see files and folders for a moment. It is even possible to open a file. If I try to open further files or browse the data structure for too long (which is between a several seconds to a few minutes) I get a Input/Output error (In case of Knoppix and Mac) and no action would work any more. Unmounting and mounting the device again results in an unkown RAW partition, but still with a known size. Disconnecting the drive lets me repeat above procedures. Recovering single small files is possible that way, whereas this will obviously fail for large files or even a whole partition.

History: After updating Windows and a subsequent bluescreen some hours after the next boot-up windows once restarted flawlassly but never revocered from the next hibernation. I thus tested several startup procedures including protected mode, repair (even from Recovery DVD) etc. always freezing at the step when the movable mouse appears upon a graphcal window. I finally booted into my Linux Mint partition which worked perfectly, and let me do some backups. Unfortunately only some, as the next day I booted the system even Grub 2 was gone. As the Windows Recovery DVD and Linux Mint Live couldn't see the harddisk, i built it into a external hard drive mount with USB2 and plugged it into my friends computers, namely a Mac OS X and a Windows Vista system, where I could at least see, that the data is still there and eventually accessible.

Harddisk (according lable):
Seagate Momentus
Firmware 0002DEM1

My computer:
Dell XPS 15 L502X
Intel Core i7-2679QM @ 2.20GHz
Original Windows 7 Home Premium 64bit SP1
One dell utility partition and one untouched recovery partition before the OS and extended partitions

As I do not have any raid system I generally backup my important Data manually just about once per year (really important data is synced via cloud services), therefore many (at least to me) valuable files are still on the harddrive, so I would thankfully appreciate any hints or solutions. Could this be a hardware malfunction, a harddisk controller error a magnetic error or some filesystem and partition table corruption? Kind regards
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More about harddisk error minutes
  1. Use smartmontools to retrieve the SMART data. Look for reallocated, pending, or uncorrectable sectors.

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