The amount of cache is selected by engineers to hold enough data so that the mechanical pert of the drive is not delayed.
The size will be appropriate to the drive.
There is very little likelihood that with such a small amount of cache that anything in it will ever be reused often enough to make a significant performance difference. I think high amounts of cache are mostly marketing.
It is the mechanical component of a hard drive that determines their performance.
Probably the best performance metric for a hard drive is the sustained data rate. You usually have to dig into the drive specs to find this.
If you want a big difference in performance, buy a SSD.