Thanks for the responses!
Interesting development- when I plugged the drive in via USB to check it, I could see all the partitions and files, suggesting that the drive is still working, but something went bad.
-I just tried booting into safe mode, and I got the same blue screen.
-I'll try your suggestion once the disk scan is done. It seems that it should work, though, given that all the files seem to be intact. The drive would be detected in the BIOS, right?