Connect the computer to the router with an ethernet cable.
See the literature which came with your router for how to access the user setup screens in the router. Once in go to wireless security and review or renew the wireless security type and password. WPA PSK TKIP is the most common security type in use.
Make a note of the SSID or change it to one of your invention. Make sure SSID is being broadcast.
Check that Access List (or similarly named feature) is not enabled -- this filters users in or out by MAC ID, the unique number assigned to every wireless device at time of manufacture.
Go to wireless mode and ensure that it's set to a protocol matching your computer's wireless adapter (mixed mode is a safe bet).
Disconnect ethernet cable.
Go to the computer's wireless networking setup screen and see if you can detect the router's SSID (wireless call sign). Select that network.
Apply the wireless security type and password to the computer's wireless networking setup screen.
If this doesn't work try again with wireless security disabled in the router.