Hello, I am an researcher and engineer. Have some programs written in Matlab and C++ which run for days.
wanted to buy something for faster processing of numerical data , too many non-linear calculations and iterations.
I use Linux as my OS.
On Linux you can use anything from a Amd tri core to a quad from Amd or intel. Linux is very light and you don't need a Xeon. It will be one overkill and don't know too many good 64bit versions of Linux available.
Get a x4 for 140usd or a 6 core for 180 usd. Would be more than enough power for you
Linux/Unix have had 64-bit versions since before 2000. I'm not sure I follow the point of that statement anyway. What are you trying to tell him?
You can say the same for any OS. AMD tri to quad is more than enough. But is it fast enough for his tasks? What is his current setup and what kind of performance is he getting? Now, what kind of performance does he want, relative to that?
Are you willing to pay more for the better reliability and stability of server-class processors/ ECC memory? Do you have any intention of going multi-CPU at any point? If so to either, go with a server processor. If not, go with a desktop processor.