Few days ago I was installing a PSU, (old ones fan died), had to take off the CPU cooling unit to get the big thing into the case.
Somehow, someway, much to my own stupidity, I did not connect the cooling unit to the CPU correctly.
It ran fine for a few days, but I moved my system last night and that was the final push it needed, was playing skyrim last night and the system shut it self down after 30 minutes of play. Unsure why, I checked the PSU, video card, etc, looked fine, nothing was overly hot (than usual)
booted it back up, and it shut down within 2 minutes.
This point irritated that I had been removed from my beloved world of skyrim, dug deeper and checked the fans to make sure they were spinning up when i booted it, all fans worked, but it shut down again within a few seconds.
I went to put my finger on the heatsink for the CPU to see if it was hot, fully prepared to burn myself, but instead of a searing burn, the whole unit moved! At which point i pulled the system down and laid it down, the whole heatsink had become disconnected from the surface of the CPU and my precious AMD phenom black 3.0 ghz was running without a heatsink!
I took it apart, cleaned off the old thermal gel, reapplied a new coating and put it all back together, praying.
it booted up without issue, seemed to be fine, except...
everything is jittery
Skyrim is jittery, intelburntest programs little flame freetest is not smooth at all, jittery.
I reinstalled my video drivers, (geforce GTX 580), still jittery.
Our processors have a final shutoff that is called Thermtrip which can go up to 125c (or around that range for most processors). Once the Thermtrip goes off the processor will shut down. This is a processor level feature so I don't know of anyway to get past it. So if you are having problems after having your computer overheat most likely it is from something else besides the processor.
Is intelburntest something that can be run in Safe Mode? If so, try that...as Safe Mode installs minimum drivers, you could see if the problem manifests itself again.
Another idea would be to strip the system and rebuild it, making sure everything is reconnected properly and seated correctly. From what you've said, you've moved your system and been inside it several times...if you've been searching for a problem, sometimes it's human nature to rush a bit, so you may have knocked/dislodged something slightly to cause this new issue.