There is a button in the menu with 'balanced, powersaver ..' to adjust the settings of the power schemes. And there is a way to define a new power scheme. http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-vista/Change-create-or-delete-a-power-plan-scheme
But, you may have hit other issues. Removing the battery, unplugging the laptop and letting it sit a minute for the caps to drain sometimes works wonders. Guessing a spike came thru the adapter during the power fail and messed something up. Also reset the BIOS parameters back to default and save.
See if you can charge the battery after that. If not then hope the power supply is messed up and try another. (Use warranty to get a new external power supply if you can, otherwise buy one big enough for your system power draw which is way above normal. Don't get generic fits all laptop charger, won't work). If you still can't charge batter then the MB could be fried. hope not, that would be a bummer.