Can you try it on your friend's system? by the way I didn't get one thing, is your display VGA or DVI? you were talking about the adaptor and now you said that your display has DVI.
just to check the card you can use that converter on the dvi port of the motherboard, remove the graphics card, this will enable your on board gpu
then you can use the dvi port of the mother board and check if it works, if it doesn't then try plugging it to your vga port directly, then if the display works the adaptor has problem
I am assuming that your display is VGA
It seems that the cable is faulty or it can be the dvi-d port of your display
so try with another dvi cable and see if it works, if it doesn't then your dvi port on monitor is faulty else cable
At your resolution dvi-d gives better image so get a new cable and enjoy if its cable fault else replace your display if under warranty