Not that I'm aware. Static electricity is usually between two surfaces and I'm not aware of it being able to travel through an insulated cable. Does your computer still run fine? If it does then I wouldn't be worried about it.
Well i guess anythings possible but i would venture to say that this is absolutely unlikely, Why? have you experienced problems since this happened or are you just wondering if things could've been damaged before turning it back on?
If your currently using it, then any static charge, if causing damage, would be complete, as in the device would either be just fine or it would not work at all, there is no middle grounds with this, so you havent partially damaged anything.
Also, USB wires have a couple of pins for grounding which means that its even less likely to happen