You may have short circuited the contacts in the USB ports with the audio plug. The part of the chipset that controls the USB ports may be fried. If not... Try re-installing the chipset driver if you have the disk containing it. If not, locate your motherboard online and download the chipset driver.
Thank you. I however went to sleep and next morning it miracously worked. I have no clue what may have happened. I did restart it 3 times after it stopped working - it seems it just needed some time to rest.
I also had faced the same problem on my laptop. Fortunately, I could solve the problem listening to a wise friend’s advice. It’s very simple. Just take the battery out and insert again. If you are lucky, the laptop will reset.