Make yourself a bootable CD.Ubuntu Desktop
You can build a bootable CD or USB flash drive with a complete (non-windows) operating system. Power on and use the F12 key to choose the boot device (CD/DVD or USB) and use the Try It option instead of the Install option.
If your laptop runs Ubuntu OK (and it should since you made it to Safe Mode) you know its limited to an issue with your hard drive or Win7 operating system. If Ubuntu won't run it's probably hardware related to the laptop.
If Ubuntu is running, you should be able to use it's file manager to browse your HDDs and even copy off personal files and data for backup purposes.