For AHCI, Windows has to use the SATA driver, enabled through registry settings.
Since you've installed SATA in IDE mode on the previous system, the drivers are not enabled, so when booting you got the error.
For switching to AHCI you have to install the Intel SATA driver and modify some registry settings or apply a Microsoft fix.
If you wish to switch to AHCI, I can provide the info.
No damage to the PC. It's simply a software issue.
Now it would be good to update the previously installed drivers for the new components.