I'm going to say you could, but not in the way your thinking. I was recently in a thread where someone was telling me that a bottleneck is only where either the CPU or GPU is much stronger then the other. I disagree. A bottleneck is where one part of your computer will prevent the rest of the system from "being all that it can be". A 2600K and two 580s/one 590 will be fine. But if you pair that setup with a 1440x900 monitor, you'll have a bottleneck. I mention this because even a single 1080 monitor might not be enough let the GPUs "stretch their legs". If you are getting GPUs like that, you really want a surround setup, or a 3D setup. I highly suggest getting a single GTX580 now if you only have a single 1920x1080 screen. To get more then that is a waste.
Similar concept applies with the 2600K. The 2500K is nearly just as good for gaming.