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Intel CPU technologies

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May 2, 2012 8:03:02 PM

Intel Turbo Boost Technology
Speeds up the CPUs

Intel vPro Technology
Not sure about this one. Looking here it talks about speeding up encryption but the i5-3570K already has AES New Instructions. On that page they also talk about Intel Anti-Theft Technology. But the i5-3570K already has that too. They also talk about remote access. The way they talk its all bundled together but it's not. What examples can be given to show how someone would use the remote access and the rest of the Intel vPro Technology besides AES New Instructions and Intel Anti-Theft Technology? I understand AES New Instructions. Example 7-Zip, TrueCrypt, etc... Intel Anti-Theft Technology is for when your computer gets stolen. Not sure how you go about using it, software, paying for service etc.. But for the rest of the Intel vPro Technology I have no idea and would like some examples.

Intel Hyper-Threading Technology
Virtual cores and more threads.

Intel Virtualization Technology (VT-x)
From what I have read it would help software like VMware and Oracle VM VirtualBox. How exactly I am not sure. How and examples appreciated.

Intel Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d)
Same as Intel Virtualization Technology (VT-x) but goes further somehow?

Intel Trusted Execution Technology
Not sure how this would help.

AES New Instructions
Helps speed up encryption and decryption. Programs like 7-Zip, TrueCrypt, etc... Wonder how much faster though compared to a CPU without AES New Instructions

Intel 64
64 bit computing.

Idle States
Not sure what this is. Only thing comes to mind is when the computer is idle and not doing anything.

Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology
Adjust processor voltage and core frequency. I assume it will increase both for heavier loads and lower both for decreased loads.

Thermal Monitoring Technologies
For monitoring CPU temps. Probably more to it than just that though.

Intel Fast Memory Access
This is about the Intel® HD Graphics 4000 from what I understand?

Intel Flex Memory Access
Not sure about this one. From what I understand they mean if you use a 4 GB stick and a 2 GB stick.

Execute Disable Bit
Not sure how this would help you when it comes to viruses. Would like to see a real working example of it.

More about : intel cpu technologies

a c 184 à CPUs
a b å Intel
May 2, 2012 8:05:03 PM

Ok?
May 2, 2012 9:29:25 PM

Although you did not say exactly what you wanted, here are my additions:

Intel Turbo Boost Technology
Increase frequency for low-threaded tasks. So just 1 CPU at 100% will have that CPU at higher clock than 2 CPUs at 100% (and scale down, down to no increase for all CPUs at 100%). This is all connected to power consumption.

Intel vPro Technology
This is marketed for enterprise use. I don't know the details, but I've seen articles referring to remote booting and administration (i.e.: admin start your PC and can control certain tasks before windows ever loads). Again, this is a scenario that I understood, but I'm unsure.

Intel Hyper-Threading Technology
Creates virtual CPUs which share execution units (ALU, FPU). So for example 2 number-crunching threads, 1 with integer and 1 floating-point will behave like 2 separate cores, but 2 purely integer threads will not benefit much (note: assuming an architecture with 1 integer ALU and 1 floating-point unit in a simplified example). In current multi-core CPUs it may not be very noticeable, but in the P4s where it debuted (on x86), these were the results.

Intel Virtualization Technology (VT-x)
Allows virtualization of CPU. Every OS uses some special instructions to configure and isolate any process/task. The problem is that an OS in a virtual machine should not have direct access to this. So new modes were created where a virtual machine's OS executes just like a regular process (isolated with own address space), but once those certain instructions are executed, the CPU gives control of the controlling hipervisor (in the host=controlling OS) to emulate those instructions. This allows to execute a virtual machine with near-native speed. Otherwise every instructions should be caught and checked against an "allowed list", or even modified (think about a 10-20x reduction of speed).

Intel Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d)
My main highlight: extends the memory mapping virtualization to off-CPU units. A virtual machine with VT-x will present the guest OS with a certain address space (think 2GB of guest memory mapped to addresses 1-3GB in physical RAM). This is all translated by CPU when executing guest's memory accesses. But VT-d allows this mapping to be done on PCI(e) devices. Example: a driver in guest OS configures it's buffers at address 200MB, which the VT-x maps at physical location 1200MB. But the driver then tells the HW to use physical address 200MB, which of course is totally wrong. But with VT-d (a.k.a. IOMMU) a module between PCI bus and memory can be configured to make this translation to DMA operations. So the IOMMU will now that address 200MB for device X really is 1200MB.

Intel Trusted Execution Technology
Again marketed for enterprise use. I think it has to do with biometric data (like fingerprint sensor to unlock HDD access and user logons) and maybe even more (like some admin keys so that if a user really screws up a PC, it's data can still be accessed by a trusted I.T. staff)

AES New Instructions
You got it right. As I recall, it's something like from 200-300MB/s to 2-2.5GB/s. Of course, it's just for AES. Any other encryption si not supported (so still done by regular algorithms).

Intel 64
Increases 4 times the data-register space (doubling of existing 8 32-bit registers + 8 new 64-bit ones). Increases pointer registers to 64-bit, thus allowing 64-bit apps to use 2^64 bytes of RAM. Popular misconception is that this has to do with physical RAM, but since 95's Pentium Pro, 32-bit systems could use 36-bit addressing (64GB), just limited each process to 4GB. Misconception helped by 32-bit Windows being artificially limited to 4GB due to PCI DMAs, because PCI address space (used in DMA) is still limited to 4GB RAM, even on 64-bit OS. So 32-bit OS needed drivers to be made for 2 operating modes (regular 32-bit addressing and 36-bit PAE addressing), which not many HW manufacturers did for their cheap HW. To avoid many support calls, MS decided to limit (and try forcing/hastening 32 to 64 bit transition). Proof: compare desktop and server Windows RAM support. Server-side, only certified HW and drivers should be used (after all, we are talking about always-on systems with uptime in months or even years).

Idle States
Not sure. Probably disabling clock for unused CPU modules.

Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology
This you got it right. Except that it will lower compared to "rated" specs (like what you see in BIOS configs).

Thermal Monitoring Technologies
Actually this is pretty complex and safe: an internal temperature monitor can decrease CPU speed (by disabling clock cycles, almost like lowering it) if a certain temperature is reached. A small test in the P4 era shows a quake 3 time-demo slowing down to a crawl (but still running) when the CPU heatsink was detached (running system) and getting back to speed within seconds when it was reattached. Needless to say, the compared Athlon started smoking an glowing. (PS: I don't know if AMD have implemented a similar technology).

Intel Fast Memory Access
I don't think it really has anything with HD graphics. I think they marketed some memory controller tunings with this. Core2Duo really seemed to not depend much on memory latency, basically clock being the main performer.

Intel Flex Memory Access
Dual channel does not require 2 (or pairs of 2) identical memory modules. So for example a 1GB + 2GB configuration would combine the 1st GB of each module in dual-channel (1st 2GB of RAM), while the remaining GB of the bigger module would be used in single-channel (address 2-3GB). In other words, the common size would be dual-channeled, while the rest single. (Flexible)

Execute Disable Bit
I don't know about viruses, but it helps against exploits. Usually an exploit is used by putting something on the stack (area used for saving calls of functions with their parameters) or another data area and making the vulnerable process execute something from there. Of course this is not designed, but because of some incorrect checks (or even missing), it is possible and very hard to find it. But by marking data areas as "no execute", the CPU will not allow execution (there are 3 memory access type: read, write and fetch) so if such a "direction" is taken by a process, the OS intervenes and kills it (better stop a process than letting it get out of control). PS: this function is implemented through PAE, which means any modern 32-bit CPU (late P4s, but I don't know about AMDs) is in 36-bit addressing, thus being able to access up to 64GB of RAM. 64-bit mode has it active by default (actual usage depends on OS).
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a c 446 à CPUs
a c 110 å Intel
May 3, 2012 1:40:52 AM

What?!?!?!

No information about the AVX Instruction Set?

I am extremely disappointed...
a c 172 à CPUs
a b å Intel
May 3, 2012 3:02:26 AM

mathew7 said:

Intel 64
Increases 4 times the data-register space ...

Technology licensed from AMD.
May 3, 2012 3:42:31 AM

mathew7 said:
Although you did not say exactly what you wanted, here are my additions:


What I wanted was someone to explain to me the things I did not understand.
!