not in the slightest
All components are designed to switch between power states extremely quickly. Your CPU is capable of idling cores at a moments notice to save a small amount of power and then bringing them back up quickly. If you actually look at the operational statistics of various components over time you'll see that your CPU cores will constantly change their frequency and voltage to meet demand. Intel has specified maximum voltage changes over time (slew rate) and all power delivery mechanisms are designed within this specification.
In fact the voltage regulators which take a 120 volt RMS AC power supply from the socket and transform it into a 12 volt DC supply which is then transformed into a 5 volt supply, 3.3 volt supply, as well as the programmable supplies to your CPU, memory, and graphics card, all use components which switch between discrete "on" and "off"states several hundred thousand times per second. The amount of time that the regulator spends in the on and off states is controlled so as to provide a stable output voltage.
With that said, excessive load changes over a very short period of time (microseconds or less) can cause a current inrush and voltage spike which can damage components. Intel's power delivery specification is designed to prevent this. So long as you don't perform a massive overclock on a budget motherboard this will not be an issue.