When I start the computer up, I get past past the Asus flash screen an then it brings me to a page saying "Power supply surges detected during previous power on. Asus Anti-Surge was activated to protect the system from unstable power unit!".
Power Supply: XFX P1550SXXB9 Core Edition Power Supply - 550W, 80 Plus Bronze, 135mm Fan, Active PFC, Single +12V Rail
Motherboard: ASUS P8Z77-V LK Intel Z77 Motherboard - ATX, 4x DIMM, DDR3, Socket 1155, PCIe 3.0, Intel Z77 Chipset, SATA 6Gb/s, USB 3.0, HDMI, LAN, DVI, DisplayPort
I'm wondering what to do and whether or not to change the power supply or motherboard.
I'm guessing there's your problem right there. A broken slot like that could disrupt the whole motherboard. I had a graphics card with a broken DVI connector that was causing a similar malfunction. Can you get into the BIOS at all to see if there's anything else that's causing the problem?