At the moment no, Adaptive Vsync is an Nvidia exclusive feature right now. That said, it probably isn't worth getting an Nvidia card solely because of Adaptive Vsync, not unless screen tearing really bothers you, and you can't stand losing some frames to vsync when your card can't deliver 60FPS as a minimum framerate. It's a nice bonus feature, but I would be more concerned about how specific games you wanted to play perform on AMD and Nvidia at your particular budget, and how much you need GPU compute (if at all) when it comes to making the decision of which one to go with.
There are ways to force a radeon to do vsync and triple buffering at the same time(similar
to or perhaps even better than adaptive vsync). I am not privy to those ways, however.
Maybe others on here know how, or you could google it.