Like Nawit said. It happens if you are using an old install with new components, because the drivers aren't right. When windows boots it loads drivers and all sets of settings specific to the motherboard, and other components. Different Mobo = Wrong Drivers, and it blows up. A fresh install will take care of it.
This is of course assuming that you didnt do a fresh install already. If you did, you might have corrupted install, or dying hard drive. So trying a fresh install would be a solution there as well.
If there is data you want on the hard drive, you can try booting in safe mode, or installing on a different drive, and plug that in and pull data off it.