Is this a HDD or SDD? run 'chkdsk' from either window's safe mode or recovery console. Try this link for command instructions: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb491051.aspx.
Also if you can boot into windows try reading the S.M.A.R.T. settings with a utility that'll report the drive's health.
*edit* oh ya, is that a blue screen or Bios Post message?